Map of Jina- China
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is often called the “Spring City” for its famous 72 artesian springs. Its population was 7,067,900 in 2014 with an urban population of 4,693,700.
Jinan dialect is Mandarin Chinese dialect spoken in Jinan in Shandong province.
Jinan Currency Exchange. What Currency is used in Jinan – Chinese Yuan (also known as Renminbi, rmb for short) is the official and legal currency in circulation. Use of foreign currencies is generally not allowed.
Jinan is located in the north-western part of Shandong province at 36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing. It borders Liaocheng to the southwest, Dezhou to the northwest, Binzhou to the northeast, Zibo to the east, Laiwu to the southeast, and Tai’an to the south. In the relief of the region, the city occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the Taishan Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow River to the north. Karst aquifers in limestone formations sloping down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in the city center as well as in surrounding areas.
Jinan has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former, with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold (with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm (7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48 percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of bright sunshine annually.
Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions are common, occurring on about 200 days per year. The high precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a candidate for the fourth “furnace”, c.e. Three Furnaces. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17 January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.
Culture and contemporary life
Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding areas, have traditionally spoken the Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin. The younger people of Jinan are more likely to speak standard Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of Jinan tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of migrant workers during the past decade of China’s economic boom, many of the current population that are of working age are not natives of Jinan but have learned to understand the Jinan dialect
Jinan has its own cuisine, the Jinan style of the Lu cuisine (Simplified Chinese: 鲁菜/ Traditional Chinese: 魯菜; pinyin: Lǔcài), one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern China —Beijing, Tianjin and the northeastern regions including Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning— are all branches of Shandong cuisine.
Most shopping malls in Jinan are in the downtown area centered around Spring City Square (泉城广场) and Spring City Road (泉城路). Spring City Square was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue “Spring” which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous people from Shandong.
Spring City Road was rebuilt at the same time that Spring City Square was created. The government’s intention was to create a modern business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found side-by-side along Spring City Road. Notable retail businesses are Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and Walmart (near the western end of Spring City Road). Major shopping malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center (贵和商厦), the Sofitel Silver Plaza, and the Wanda Shopping Mall (万达集团). Parc 66 (济南恒隆广场) to the south of Spring City Road (opposite of Water Lily Street), opened in August 2011, is Jinan’s largest shopping mall with seven levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square meters.
Jinan is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The Jinghu Railway that runs from Beijing to Shanghai is the major north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In Jinan, it intersects with the Jiaoji Railway that connects Jinan to the sea port of Qingdao to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway connects Jinan to the city of Handan (Hebei Province) in the west. Within Shandong province, the Jinghu Railway connects Jinan with the cities of Dezhou, Tai’an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji Railway serves the cities of Yancheng and Liaocheng. Central Jinan is served by the Jinan Railway Station (nearer to the center of town) and the Jinan East Railway Station (just by Daming Lake).
The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway calls at the new Jinan West Railway Station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and is in suburban western Jinan’s Huaiyin District. Since it opened for public service on 30 June 2011, it has become a future hub with west-east running high speed railways to Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang and Qingdao.
Major expressways include China National Highway 104, China National Highway 220, and China National Highway 309. Because of Jinan’s location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per day.
Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is located about 33 km (21 mi) northeast of the city center and to the north of the town of Yaoqiang (遥墙镇) from which the name of the airport is derived. The airport is connected to the city center of Jinan by expressways. It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in China as well as to international destinations, in particular Osaka, Seoul, Bangkok and Singapore.
Jinan’s urban public transportation history began in 1938, and the city is now a major bus transportation hub. To ensure that buses have priority, most of the city’s urban main roads have a bus lane, and Bus rapid transit signal priority measures are gradually being implemented. The Jinan urban area has more than 220 public transportation routes.
According to the properties of bus lines, Jinan’s urban bus network can be divided into five categories:
Bus rapid transit system: The Jinan BRT has 7 routes, connected by transfer stations. As a result of the BRT’s isolated central lanes, signal priority and other measures, bus speeds, as compared with conventional buses, have been greatly improved, making the BRT important urban form of public transport. However, the BRT bus dedicated lanes occupy road space, make the traffic worse, slow down the non-BRT buses, and in some congested roads create various other problems, thereby incurring some public criticism.Price:￥2.
Conventional buses: Also recognized as Non-air-conditioned buses.These lines comprise more than 100 routes, covering the whole city.Price:￥1.
Public trolleybuses: the Jinan trolleybus system, opened in 1977, once had 10 lines, but now has only four. These are Jinan important public transport routes.Price：￥1.
K bus lines. Operated by air-conditioned vehicles, these lines currently operate over more than 100 routes. K buses have a K on their displays to show the difference between the non-air-conditioned buses. Price:￥2.
Suburban and exurban buses – Operated by air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned vehicles. Most of these buses carries passengers from suburban/exurban area to urban area,while the others provide village-to-village or village-to-county service.Price:Vary from ￥1 to ￥12.
Student, supermarket and particular business bus lines – These are for large schools, supermarkets, business transfer students, customers, employees of private businesses. They operate side by side with the other bus systems.
Started by construction in 2013, Jinan Metro will open in 2018 and then will be extended to 3 lines toward 2030.